About Organic Farming in India:
Organic farming system in India is very old and is being followed from ancient time. It is a method of farming system which primarily aimed at cultivating the land and raising crops in such a way, as to keep the soil alive and in good health by use of organic wastes (crop, animal and farm wastes, aquatic wastes) and other biological materials along with beneficial microbes (bio fertilizers) to release nutrients to crops for increased sustainable production in an eco friendly pollution free environment.
Organic farming is based on the principle of maximum production with high quality without affecting the soil fertility and environment. Due to the continuously increment in world population, demand of organic vegetables has been increased.
India has a lot of potential in this field, Organic farming started mostly as a small farm system with operations also being on farms less than 1 acre in size.
For farms under 10 acre in size, farming is mostly labor intensive and requires lesser mechanization. Also organic farming tends to reduce costs as it removes the extra cost of synthetic fertilizers used in conventional farming methods.
Organic farming results in clean very good quality products. Given the current state of Indian agriculture, organic farming seems to have a lot of scope in uplifting the condition of Indian farmers.
The key characteristics of organic farming are:
1) Protecting the long term fertility of soils by maintaining organic matter levels, encouraging soil biological activity, and careful mechanical intervention
2) Providing crop nutrients indirectly using relatively insoluble nutrient sources which are made available to the plant by the action of soil micro-organisms
3) Nitrogen self-sufficiency through the use of legumes and biological nitrogen fixation, as well as effective recycling of organic materials including crop residues and livestock manures
4) Weed, disease and pest control relying primarily on crop rotations, natural predators, diversity, organic manuring, resistant varieties and limited (preferably minimal) thermal, biological and chemical intervention
5) The extensive management of livestock, paying full regard to their evolutionary adaptations, behavioural needs and animal welfare issues with respect to nutrition, housing, health, breeding and rearing
6) Careful attention to the impact of the farming system on the wider environment and the conservation of wildlife and natural habitats.What Provoked Organic farming? Why Organic agriculture has been become popular and expanded gradually in India because of these reasons.
a. In Indian scenario organic manures (like cow dung,tree leaves and plants, human and animal wastes) are easily available in rural areas that is why agriculture based on organic manures has been more habitats other than agriculture based on high investment fertilizers (like Chemical fertilizers).
b. Continuous application of chemical fertilizers depleted the soil as well as product quality due to which Indian farmers has been emphasized on organic agriculture.
c. Indian agriculture market was improved and commercialization based farming has been started by which agricultural market became more competitive and qualitative that is why the organic based product have more customer due to its freshness, nutrition value and microorganism free characteristics.
Classification of Organic Farming:
Organic farming has been classified in three categories for reducing the inorganic system
Pure Organic Farming: In this method application of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides has been completely replaced by organic fertilizers and bio-pesticides.
Integrated Green Revolution Farming: It is a method in which production yield has been increasing by application of hybrid varieties of seeds, sufficient irrigation, mechanized field operation and skilled labor involvement and consider the minimum damage to the environment and human health. Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) both are coming under this farming.
. Integrated Farming System: Farming is totally depends upon the local and natural resources like recycling of agricultural wastes, tree leaves,crop residues, food wastes etc. for improving the quality of produces without depleting the ecosystem.